altitudes up to 10,000 feet. During hot weather
operations, the principal difficulties encountered are
high turbine gas temperatures (ITT) during engine
starting, overheating of brakes, and longer takeoff and
landing rolls due to the higher density altitudes. In
areas where high humidity is encountered, electrical
equipment (such as communication equipment and
instruments) will be subject to malfunction by
a. Preparation for Flight. Check the position
of the aircraft in relation to other aircraft. Propeller
sand blast can damage closely parked aircraft. Check
that the landing gear shock struts are free of dust and
sand. Check the instrument panel and general interior
for dust and sand accumulation. Open main entrance
door and cockpit vent storm windows to ventilate the
N1 speeds of 70% or higher may be
required to keep oil temperatures within
b. Engine Starting. Use normal procedures in
Section II. Engine starting under conditions of high
ambient temperatures may produce a higher than
normal ITT during the start. The ITT should be closely
monitored when the condition lever is moved to the
LOW IDLE position. If overtemperature tendencies
are encountered, the condition lever should be moved
IDLE CUTOFF position periodically during
acceleration of gas generator RPM (N1). Be prepared
to abort the start before temperature limitations are
c. Before Taxiing and engine Run Up. Use
normal procedures in Section II. To minimize the
dusty/sandy conditions, activate ice vanes if the
temperature is below +15 °C.
d. Taxiing. Use normal procedures in Section
II. When practical, avoid taxiing over sandy terrain to
minimize propeller damage and engine deterioration
that results from impingement of sand and gravel.
During hot weather operation, use minimum braking
action to prevent brake overheating.
e. Takeoff. Use normal procedures in Section
II. Avoid taking off in the wake of another aircraft if the
runway surface is sandy or dusty.
f. During Flight. Use normal procedures in
g. Descent. Use normal procedures in
h. Landing. Use normal procedures in
Engine Shutdown. Use normal procedures
in Section II.
During hot weather, if fuel tanks are
completely filled, fuel expansion may cause
overflow, thereby creating a fire hazard.
Before Leaving Aircraft. Use normal
procedures in Section II. Take extreme care to
prevent sand or dust from entering the fuel and oil
system during servicing. During hot weather, release
the brakes immediately after installing wheel chocks to
prevent brake disc warpage.
Due to the comparatively light wing
loading, control in severe turbulence and
thunderstorms is critical. Since turbulence
imposes heavy loads on the aircraft
structure, make all necessary changes in
aircraft attitude with the least amount of
control pressures to avoid excessive loads
on the aircraft structure.
Thunderstorms and areas of severe turbulence
should be avoided. If such areas are to be penetrated,
it will be necessary to counter rapid changes in attitude
and accept major indicated altitude variations.
Penetration should be at an altitude that provides
adequate maneuvering margins as a loss or gain of
several thousand feet of altitude may be expected.
The recommended penetration speed in severe
turbulence is 170 KIAS. Pitch attitude and constant
power settings are vital to proper flight technique.
Establish recommended penetration speed and proper
attitude prior to entering turbulent air to minimize most
difficulties. False indications by the pressure
instruments due to barometric pressure variations
within the storm make the instruments unreliable.
Maintaining a pre-established attitude will result in a
fairly constant airspeed. Turn cockpit and cabin lights
on to minimize the blinding effects of lightning. Do not
use autopilot altitude hold. Maintain constant power
settings and pitch attitude regardless of airspeed or
altitude indications. Concentrate on maintaining a level
attitude by reference to the flight director/attitude