e. Before Takeoff.
If the possibility of ice accumulation on the
horizontal stabilizer or elevator exists, do
not attempt takeoff.
If icing conditions are expected, activate all anti-
ice systems before takeoff, allowing sufficient time for
the equipment to become effective.
Following takeoff from runways covered
with snow or slush, consideration should
be given to operating the landing gear
through several complete cycles (within
limits) to dislodge ice accumulated from
the spray of slush and water and to prevent
gear freezing in the retracted position.
Takeoff procedures for cold weather operations
are the same as for normal takeoff. Taking off with
temperature at or below freezing, with water, slush, or
snow on the runway, can cause ice to accumulate on
the landing gear and can throw ice into the wheel well
areas. Such takeoffs shall be made with brake deice
on and with the ice vanes extended to preclude the
possibility of ice build-up on engine air inlets. Monitor
oil temperature to ensure operation within limits.
Before flight into icing conditions, the pilot's and
copilot's WSHLD ANTI-ICE switches should be set at
g. During Flight.
(1) After takeoff from a runway covered with
snow or slush, it may be advisable to leave brake deice
on to dislodge ice accumulated from the spray of slush
or water. Monitor BRAKE DEICE ON annunciator for
automatic termination of system operation and then
turn the switch off. During flight, trim tabs and controls
should also be exercised periodically to prevent
freezing. Ensure that anti-icing systems are activated
before entering icing conditions. Do not activate the
surface deice system until ice has accumulated to 1/2
inch. The propeller deice system operates effectively
as an anti-ice system and it may be operated
continuously in flight. If propeller imbalance due to ice
does occur, it may be relieved by increasing RPM
briefly, then returning to desired setting.
(2) Ice vanes must be extended when
operating in visible moisture or when freedom from
visible moisture cannot be assured, at +5 °C OAT or
less. Ice vanes are designed as an anti-ice system,
not a deice system. After the engine air inlet screens
are blocked, extending the ice vanes will not rectify the
condition. Ice vanes should be retracted at +15 °C
OAT and above to assure adequate engine oil cooling.
(3) Stalling airspeeds should be expected to
increase when ice has accumulated on the aircraft
causing distortion of the wing airfoil. For the same
reason, stall warning devices are not accurate and
should not be relied upon. Keep a comfortable margin
of airspeed above the normal stall airspeed. Maintain
a minimum of 140 knots during sustained icing
conditions to prevent ice accumulation on unprotected
surfaces of the wing. In the event of windshield icing,
reduce airspeed to 226 knots or below.
h. Descent. Use normal procedures in Section
II. Brake deicing should be considered if moisture was
encountered during previous ground operations or in
flight, in icing conditions with gear extended.
i. Landing. Landing on an icy runway should
be attempted only when absolutely necessary and
should not be attempted unless the wind is within 10
of runway heading. Application of brakes without
skidding the tires on ice is difficult. In order not to
impair pilot visibility, reverse thrust should be used with
caution when landing on a runway covered with snow
or standing water. Use procedures in Section II for
j. Engine Shutdown. Use normal procedures
in Section II.
k. Before Leaving Aircraft. When the aircraft
is parked outside on ice or in a fluctuating freeze-thaw
temperature condition, the following procedures should
be followed in addition to the normal procedures in
Section II. After wheel chocks are in place, release the
brakes to prevent freezing. Fill fuel tanks to minimize
condensation, remove any accumulation of dirt and ice
from the landing gear shock struts, and install
protective covers to guard against possible collection
of snow and ice.
8-57. DESERT OPERATION AND HOT WEATHER
Dust, sand, and high temperatures encountered
during desert operation can sharply reduce the
operational life of the aircraft and its equipment. The
abrasive qualities of dust and sand upon turbine
blades and other moving parts of the aircraft and the
destructive effect of heat upon the aircraft instruments
will necessitate hours of maintenance if basic
preventive measures are not followed. In flight, the
hazards of dust and sand will be difficult to escape,
since dust clouds over a desert may be found at