8-53. FLIGHT CONTROLS.
The aircraft is stable under all normal flight
conditions. Aileron, elevator, rudder, and trim tab
controls function effectively throughout all normal flight
conditions. Elevator control forces are relatively light in
the extreme aft Center of Gravity (CG) condition,
progressing to moderately high with CG at the forward
limit. Extending and retracting the landing gear causes
only slight changes in control pressure. Control
pressures resulting from changing power settings or
repositioning the flaps are not excessive in the landing
configuration at the most forward CG. The minimum
speed at which the aircraft can be fully trimmed is
92 KIAS (gear and flaps down, propellers at high
RPM). Control forces produced by changes in speed,
power setting, flap position and landing gear position
are light and can be overcome with one hand on the
control wheel. Trim tabs permit the pilot to reduce
control forces to zero. During single-engine operation,
the rudder boost system aids in relieving the relatively
high rudder pressures resulting from the large
asymmetry in power.
8-54. LEVEL FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS.
throughout the level flight speed range.
Section V. ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
The purpose of this section is to inform the pilot
of the special precautions and procedures to be
followed during the various weather conditions that
may be encountered in flight. This section is primarily
narrative; only those checklists that cover specific
procedures characteristic of weather operations are
included. The checklist in Section II provides for
adverse environmental operations.
8-56. COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS.
Operational difficulties may be encountered
during extremely cold weather, unless proper steps are
taken prior to or immediately after flight. All personnel
should understand and be fully aware of the necessary
procedures and precautions involved.
For ground operations conducive to ice
accumulation on landing gear structure,
use undiluted defrosting fluid on brakes
and tires to reduce the tendency of ice
accumulation during taxi, takeoff and
a. Preparation for Flight. Accumulations of
snow, ice, or frost on aircraft surfaces will adversely
affect takeoff distance, climb performance, and stall
speed to a dangerous degree. Such accumulations
must be removed before flight. In addition to the
normal exterior checks, following the removal of ice,
snow, or frost, inspect wing and empennage surfaces
to verify that these surfaces remain sufficiently cleared.
Also, move all control surfaces to confirm full freedom
of movement. Assure that tires are not frozen to wheel
chocks or to the ground. Use ground heaters, anti-ice
solution, or brake deice to free frozen tires. When heat
is applied to release tires, the temperature should not
exceed 71 °C (160 °F). Refer to Chapter 2 for anti-
icing, deicing, and defrosting treatment.
b. Engine Starting. When starting engines on
ramps covered with ice, propeller levers should be in
the FEATHER position to prevent the tires from sliding.
To prevent exceeding torque limits when advancing
condition levers to HIGH IDLE during the starting
procedure, place the power lever in BETA and the
propeller lever in HIGH RPM before advancing the
condition lever to HIGH IDLE.
Procedures are the same as those outlined in Section
II. When the engine runup areas are slippery, the crew
may not be able to safely accomplish the runup
procedures without causing the aircraft to begin sliding.
Under those conditions, the PC must use his
judgement to determine which runup procedures will
d. Taxiing. Whenever possible, taxiing in deep
snow, lightweight dry snow, or slush should be
avoided, particularly in colder OAT conditions. If it is
necessary to taxi through snow or slush, do not set the
parking brake when stopped. If possible, do not park
the aircraft in snow or slush deep enough to reach the
brake assemblies. Chocks or sandbags should be
used to prevent the aircraft from rolling while parked.
Before attempting to taxi, activate the brake deice
system, insuring that the bleed air valves are open and
that the condition levers are in HIGH IDLE. An outside
observer should visually check wheel rotation to
ensure brake assemblies have been deiced. The
condition levers may be returned to LOW IDLE as
soon as the brakes are free of ice.