means that both engines and propellers are operating
normally and are responsive to pilot control. The term
"power-off" means that both engines are operating at
idle power. Landing gear position has no effect on stall
speed. During practice, enter power-off stalls from
normal glides. Enter power-on stalls by smoothly
increasing pitch attitude to a climb attitude (do not
exceed 20°), and hold that attitude until the stall
a. Power-On Stalls. The power on stall
attitude is steep and, unless this high pitch attitude is
maintained, the aircraft will generally "settle" or "mush"
instead of stall. It is difficult to stall the aircraft
inadvertently in any normal maneuver. A light buffet
precedes most stalls, and the first indication of
approaching stall is generally a decrease in control
effectiveness, accompanied by a stall warning horn.
The stall itself is characterized by a rolling tendency if
the aircraft is allowed to yaw. The proper use of
rudder will minimize the tendency to roll. A slight
pitching tendency will develop if the aircraft is held in
the stall, resulting in the nose dropping sharply, then
pitching up toward the horizon; this cycle is repeated
until recovery is made. Control is regained very quickly
with little altitude loss, providing the nose is not
lowered excessively. Begin recovery with forward
movement of the control wheel and a gradual return to
level flight. The roll tendency caused by yaw is more
pronounced in power-on stalls, as is the pitching
tendency. However, both are easily controlled after the
initial entry. Power-on stall characteristics are not
greatly affected by flap position, except that stalling
speed is reduced in proportion to flap extension.
b. Power-Off Stalls. The roll tendency is
considerably less pronounced in power-off stalls (in
any configuration), and is more easily prevented or
corrected by adequate rudder and aileron control,
respectively. The nose will generally drop straight
through with some tendency to pitch up again if
recovery is not made immediately. With flaps down,
there is little or no roll tendency and stalling speed is
much slower than with flaps up. The Stall Speeds
chart shows the indicated power-off stall speeds with
aircraft in various configurations. Refer to Figure 8-3.
Altitude loss during a full stall may be as much as
c. Accelerated Stalls. The aircraft gives
noticeable stall warning in the form of buffeting before
the stall occurs. The stall warning and buffet can be
demonstrated in turns by applying excessive back
pressure on the control wheel.
Intentional spins are prohibited. If a spin is
inadvertently entered, use the following recovery
procedure. The first three actions should be
performed as simultaneously as possible:
Spin demonstrations have not been
conducted. The recovery technique is
based on the best available information.
1. POWER levers IDLE.
2. Apply full rudder opposite direction of spin
3. Simultaneously with rudder application,
push the control wheel forward and
4. When rotation stops, neutralize rudder.
Do not pull out of the resulting dive too
abruptly. This could cause excessive wing
loads and possibly a secondary stall.
5. Pull out of dive by exerting a smooth,
steady back pressure on control wheel,
excessive aircraft stresses.
Maximum airspeed (red line) Vmo/Mmo is
259 KIAS or .52 Mach. Flight characteristics are
conventional throughout a dive maneuver. However,
caution should be used if rough air is encountered after
maximum allowable dive speed has been reached.
Dive recovery should be very gentle to avoid excessive
8-52. MANEUVERING FLIGHT.
Maneuvering speed (Va) at which full abrupt
control inputs can be applied without exceeding the
design load factor of the aircraft is shown in Chapter 5.
The data is based on 12,500 pounds and there are no
restrictions below this weight. There are no unusual
characteristics during accelerated flight.