8-50. INSTRUMENT CLIMB.
Instrument climb procedures are the same as
those for visual climb. En route instrument climbs are
normally performed at cruise climb airspeeds.
8-51. INSTRUMENT CRUISE.
There are no unusual flight characteristics during
cruise in instrument meteorological conditions.
8-52. INSTRUMENT DESCENT.
When a descent at slower than recommended
speed is desired, slow the aircraft to the desired speed
before initiating the descent. Normal descent to
approach altitude can be made using cruise airspeed.
Normally, descent will be made with the aircraft in a
cruise configuration, maintaining desired speed by
reducing power as required. The aircraft is completely
controllable in a high rate descent.
8-53. INSTRUMENT APPROACHES.
There are no unusual preparations or control
techniques required for instrument approaches. The
approaches are normally flown at an airspeed of Vref to
Vref + 20 KIAS until transitioning to visual flight.
Approach speeds are increased appropriately for
potential wind shear and gusty wind conditions IAW
8-54. AUTOPILOT COUPLED APPROACHES.
There are no special preparations required for
placing the aircraft under autopilot control. Refer to
Chapter 3 for procedures to be followed for coupled
The ILS localizer and glideslope warning
flags indicate insufficient signal strength to
the receiver. Certain electrical mechanical
malfunctions between the receiver and
indicators may result in erroneous localizer
/glideslope information without a warning
flag. It is recommended that ILS
information be cross-checked with other
flight instruments prior to and during final
approach. Utilization of NAV TEST prior to
the final approach fix may detect certain
malfunctions not indicated by the warning
Section IV. FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
A pre-stall warning in the form of a very light
buffeting can be felt when a stall is approached. A
mechanical warning is also provided by a warning
horn. The warning horn starts to alarm approximately
5 to 10 knots above stall speed with the aircraft in any
configuration. If correct stall recovery technique is
used, very little altitude will be lost during the stall
recovery. For the purpose of this section, the term
"power-on" means that both engines and propellers of
the aircraft are operating normally and are responsive
to pilot control. The term "power-off" means that both
engines are operating at idle power. Landing gear
position has no effect on stall speed.
a. Power-On Stalls. The power-on stall
attitude is very steep and, unless this high-pitch
attitude is maintained, the aircraft will generally "settle"
or "mush" instead of stall. It is difficult to stall the
aircraft inadvertently in any normal maneuver. A light
buffet precedes most stalls and the first indication of
approaching stall is generally a decrease in control
effectiveness, accompanied by a "chirping" tone from
the stall warning horn. The stall itself is characterized
by a rolling tendency if the aircraft is allowed to yaw.
The proper use of rudder will prevent the tendency to
roll. A slight pitching tendency will develop if the
aircraft is held in the stall, resulting in the nose
dropping sharply, then pitching up toward the horizon;
this cycle is repeated until recovery is made. Control
is regained very quickly with little altitude loss,
providing the nose is not lowered excessively. Begin
recovery with forward movement of the control wheel
and a gradual return to level flight. The roll tendency
caused by yaw is more pronounced in power-on stalls,
as is the pitching tendency; however, both are easily
controlled after the initial entry. Power-on stall
characteristics are not greatly affected by wing flap
position, except that stalling speed is reduced in
proportion to the degree of wing flap extension.
b. Power-Off Stalls. The roll tendency is
considerably less pronounced in power-off stalls, in
any configuration, and is more easily prevented or
corrected by adequate rudder and aileron control,
respectively. The nose will generally drop straight
through with some tendency to pitch up again if
recovery is not made immediately. With wing flaps
down, there is little or no roll tendency and stalling
speed is much slower than with wing flaps up. The
Stall Speed Chart, Figure 8-2, shows the indicated
power-off stall speeds with aircraft in
configurations. Altitude loss during a full stall will be