8-41. OBSTACLE CLEARANCE APPROACH AND
MINIMUM RUN LANDING.
When landing over obstacles that require a
steeper than normal approach path or when greater
precision is required due to restricted runway lengths,
a stabilized approach/precision landing technique
should be employed. Prior to intercepting the descent
path, complete the landing check and stabilize
airspeed at Vref. After intercepting the desired
approach angle, maintain a constant descent by
controlling the descent with power and airspeed with
elevator. Transition smoothly from approach to
landing attitude. Touchdown should be made on the
main gear with the nose slightly high, with power as
required to control rate of descent for a smooth
touchdown. Immediately after touchdown, allow the
nose wheel to make ground contact and, if necessary,
apply full reverse power and braking, as required. If
possible, remove reverse thrust as the aircraft slows to
40 KIAS to minimize propeller blade erosion.
computations assume that the runway is paved, level,
and dry. Additional runway must be allowed when
these conditions are not met. Refer to Chapter 7 for
landing data. Do not consider headwind during
landing computations; however, if landing must be
downwind, include the tailwind in landing distance
computations. Plan the final approach to arrive at
50 feet over the landing area at Vref plus one-half wind
gust speed. Perform the following procedures as the
aircraft nears the runway.
1. AP & YD Disengaged.
2. GEAR DOWN lights Check.
3. PROP levers HIGH RPM.
a. Normal Landing. As the aircraft nears the
runway, flare slightly to break the rate of descent and
reduce power smoothly to IDLE as the nose of the
aircraft is rotated to landing attitude. Avoid the
tendency to ride the ground effect cushion while
waiting for the aircraft to slow down to a soft landing.
As the aircraft touches down, gently lower the nose-
wheel to the runway and use reversing, brakes, or
beta range, as required. Normally, reversing will not
be used unless required, but if it is used, remove
reverse power as the aircraft slows to 40 KIAS. This
will help minimize propeller blade erosion.
b. Crosswind Landing. When landing in very
strong crosswinds, flaps extension should be limited to
obtain a faster approach and landing speed. Use the
"crab-into-the-wind" method to correct for drift during
final approach. The "crab" is changed to a slip (aileron
into wind and top rudder) to correct for drift during flare
and touchdown. After landing, position ailerons as
required to correct for crosswind effect.
c. Soft Field Landing. When landing on a soft
or unprepared surface such as mud, tall grass, or
snow, plan a normal power approach with flaps fully
extended. Decelerate to the slowest possible airspeed
just prior to touchdown, using power to control the final
rate of descent to as slow as possible. Do not stall
prior to touchdown as the nose attitude and rate of
descent will become unacceptable. On touchdown,
apply full back (aft) elevator and reduce power slowly.
Do not use brakes unless absolutely necessary. Every
precaution must be taken to prevent the nose wheel
from digging into the surface.
d. Touch and Go Landings. The PNF should
select a point on the runway where all pre-takeoff
procedures will have been completed prior to the
pilot's initial application of power. In selecting this
point, prime consideration shall be given to the
required accelerate-stop distance pre-computed for
the runway in use. The nose wheel should be on the
runway and rolling straight before the touch-and-go
procedures are initiated. After the PF applies power to
within 5% of target, the PNFs actions are the same as
during a normal takeoff. If training authorizing touch-
and-go landings is approved, use the following
1. PROP levers HIGH RPM.
2. FLAPS As required.
3. Trim Set.
4. Power stabilized Check 27% minimum.
5. Takeoff power Set.
8-43. GO AROUND.
When a go-around is started before the landing
check, use power as required to climb to or maintain
the desired altitude and airspeed. If the go-around is
started after the landing check, apply maximum
allowable power and simultaneously increase pitch
attitude to stop the descent. Retract the landing gear
after ensuring that the aircraft will not touch the
ground. Retract the flaps to APPROACH, adjusting
pitch attitude simultaneously to avoid an altitude loss.
Accelerate to V2+10, retracting flaps fully after
attaining 105 KIAS. Safety and recoverability are
greatly enhanced by ensuring the CONDITION levers