abrasive characteristics of dust and sand upon turbine
blades and moving parts of the aircraft and the
destructive effect of heat upon the aircraft instruments
will necessitate many hours of maintenance if basic
preventive measures are not followed. In flight, the
hazards of dust and sand will be difficult to escape,
since dust clouds over a desert may be found at
altitudes up to 10,000 feet. During hot weather
operations, the principle difficulties encountered are
high turbine gas temperatures (TGT) during engine
starting, over-heating of brakes, and longer takeoff and
landing distances due to the higher density altitudes
encountered. In areas where high humidity is
communication equipment and instruments) will be
subject to malfunction by corrosion, fungi and moisture
absorption by nonmetallic materials.
reparation For Flight. Check the position of the
aircraft in relation to other aircraft. Propeller blown sand
can damage nearby aircraft. Check that the landing
gear shock struts are free of dust and sand. Check
instrument panel and general interior for dust and sand
accumulation. Open main entrance door and cockpit
vent storm windows to ventilate the aircraft.
Engine Starting. Use normal procedures in
Section II. Engine starting under conditions of high
ambient temperatures may produce a higher than
normal TGT during the start. The TGT should be
closely monitored when the condition lever is moved to
the LOW IDLE position. If overtemperature tendencies
are encountered, the condition lever should be moved to
IDLE CUTOFF position periodically during acceleration
of gas generator RPM (NI). Be prepared to abort the
start before temperature limitations are exceeded.
procedures in Section II.
Taxiing. Use normal procedures in Section II.
When practical, avoid taxiing over sandy terrain to
minimize propeller damage and engine deterioration
that results from impingement of sand and gravel.
During hot weather operation, use minimum braking
action to prevent brake overheating.
Takeoff. Use normal procedures in Section II.
Avoid taking off in the wake of another aircraft if the
runway surface is sandy or dusty.
f During Flight. Use normal procedures in
Descent. Use normal procedures in Section II.
Landing. Use normal procedures in Section II.
Engine Shutdown. Use normal procedures in
During hot weather, if fuel tanks are
completely filled, fuel expansion may
cause overflow, thereby creating a
Before Leaving Aircraft. Use normal procedures
in Section II. Take extreme care to prevent sand or dust
from entering the fuel and oil system during servicing.
During hot weather, release the brakes immediately
after installing wheel chocks to prevent brake disc
Due to the comparatively light wing
loading, control in severe turbulence
and thunderstorms is critical. Since
turbulence imposes heavy loads on
attitude with the least amount of
control pressures possible to avoid
Thunderstorms and areas of severe turbulence should
be avoided. However, if such areas are to be
penetrated, it will be necessary to counter rapid changes
in attitude and accept major indicated altitude variations.
Penetration should be at an altitude which provides
adequate maneuvering margins as a loss or gain of
several thousand feet of altitude may be expected. The
turbulence is 150 KIAS. Constant pitch attitude and
power settings are vital to proper flight technique.
Establish recommended penetration speed and proper
attitude prior to entering turbulent air to minimize most
instruments due to barometric pressure variations within
the storm make them unreliable. Maintaining a pre-
established attitude will result in a fairly constant
airspeed. Turn cockpit and cabin lights on to minimize
the blinding effects of lighting. Do not use autopilot
altitude hold. Maintain