unlock the control surfaces until prepared to properly
Do not operate engines while towing
equipment is attached to the aircraft, or while the aircraft
is tied down.
Unless it is in the centered position, avoid operating the
engines at high power settings.
Hold control surfaces in the neutral
position when the engines are being operated at high
When moving the aircraft, do not
push on propeller deicing boots. Damage to the heating
elements may result.
Moving Aircraft on Ground. Aircraft on the
ground shall be moved in accordance with the following:
accordance with chapter 8.
When the aircraft is being towed, a
qualified person must be in the pilot's
seat to maintain control by use of the
brakes. When towing, do not exceed
nose gear turn limits (fig. 2-35). Avoid
short radius turns, and always keep
the inside or pivot wheel turning
during the operation. Do not tow
aircraft with rudder locks installed, as
severe damage to the nose steering
linkage can result. When moving the
aircraft backwards, do not apply the
brakes abruptly. Tow the aircraft
especially over snowy, icy, rough,
soggy, or muddy terrain. In arctic
climates, the aircraft must be towed by
the main gears, as an immense
breakaway load, resulting from ice,
frozen tires, and stiffened grease in
the wheel bearings may damage the
nose gear. Do not tow or taxi aircraft
with deflated shock struts.
Towing. Towing lugs are provided on
the upper torque knee fitting of the nose strut. When it
is necessary to tow the aircraft with a vehicle, use the
vehicle tow bar. Never exceed the turn limit arrows
displayed on the placard located on the nose gear
assembly (fig. 2-35). In the event towing lines are
necessary, use towing lugs on the main landing gear.
Use towing lines long enough to clear nose and/or tail by
at least 15 feet. This length is required to prevent the
aircraft from overrunning the towing vehicle or fouling
the nose gear.
Ground Handling Under Extreme Weather
Conditions. Extreme weather conditions necessitate
particular care in ground handling of the aircraft. In hot,
dry, sandy, desert conditions, special attention must be
devoted to finding a firmly packed parking and towing
area. If such areas are not available, steel mats or an
equivalent solid base must be provided for these
purposes. In wet, swampy areas, care must be taken to
avoid bogging down the aircraft. Under cold, icy, arctic
conditions, additional mooring is required, and added
precautions must be taken to avoid skidding during
Parking is defined as the normal condition under
which the aircraft will be secured while on the ground.
This condition may vary from the temporary expedient
of setting the parking brake and chocking the wheels to
the more elaborate mooring procedures described under
Mooring. The proper steps for securing the aircraft must
be based on the time the aircraft will be left unattended,
the aircraft weights, the expected wind direction and
velocity, and the anticipated availability of ground and
air crews for mooring and/or evacuation. When
practical head the aircraft into the wind, especially if
strong winds are forecast or if it will be necessary to
leave the aircraft overnight. Set the parking brake and
chock the wheels securely. Following engine shutdown,
position and engage the control locks.
Cowlings and loose equipment will be
suitably secured at all times when left
in an unattended condition.
The parking brake system for the aircraft
incorporates two lever-type valves, one for each wheel
brake. Both valves are closed simultaneously by pulling
out the parking brake handle. Operate the parking
brake as follows:
Depress both brakes.
Pull parking brake handle out. This
will cause the parking brake valves to lock the hydraulic
fluid under pressure in the parking brake system,
thereby retaining braking action.