Table 2-11. Standard Alternate and Emergency Fuels
ARMY STANDARD FUEL
Any AV Gas
* Maximum operating hours with indicated fuel between engine overhauls (TBO).
FILLING FUEL TANKS.
Army Standard Fuels. Army standard fuel
W A R N I N G
b. Alternate Fuels, Army Alternate fuels are
JP-5 and JP-8.
Prior to removing the fuel tank filler cap,
the hose nozzle static ground wire shall be
attached to the grounding lugs that are
located adjacent to the filler opening.
Fill tanks as follows:
Emergency Fuel. Avgas is emergency fuel
and subject to 150 hour time limit.
2-94. USE OF FUELS.
Fuel is used as follows:
Attach bonding cables to aircraft.
Attach bonding cable from hose nozzle to
ground socket adjacent to fuel tank being filled.
Do not insert fuel nozzle completely into
fuel cell due to possible damage to bottom
of fuel cell. Nozzle should be supported
and inserted straight down to prevent
damage to the anti-siphon valve.
Fill main tank before filling respective aux-
iliary tanks unless less than a full fuel load is
Secure applicable fuel tank filler cap. Make
sure latch tab on cap is pointed aft.
Disconnect bonding cables from aircraft.
2-92. DRAINING MOISTURE FROM FUEL SYS-
To remove moisture and sediment from the fuel
system, 12 fuel drains are installed (plus one for the
ferry system, when installed).
2-93. FUEL TYPES.
Approved fuel types are as follows:
Fuel limitations. There is no special limita-
tion on the use of Army standard fuel, but certain
limitations are imposed when alternate or emer-
gency fuels are used. For the purpose of recording,
fuel mixtures shall be identified as to the major
component of the mixture, except when the mixture
contains leaded gasoline. The use of any fuels other
than standard will be entered in the FAULTS/
REMARKS column of DA Form 2408-13, Aircraft
Maintenance and Inspection Record, noting the type
of fuel, additives, and duration of operation.
Use of Kerosene Fuels. The use of kerosene
fuels (JP-5 type) in turbine engines dictates the need
for observance of special precautions. Both ground
starts and air restarts at low temperature may be
more difficult due to low vapor pressure. Kerosene
fuels having a freezing point of minus 40 degrees C
(minus 40 degrees F) limit the maximum altitude of
a mission to 28,000 feet under standard day condi-
Mixing of Fuels in Aircraft Tanks. When
changing from one type of authorized fuel to
another, for example JP-4 to JP-5, it is not necessary
to drain the aircraft fuel system before adding the
d. Fuel Specifications. Fuel having the same
NATO code number are interchangeable. Jet fuels
conforming to ASTM D-1655 specification may be
used when MIL-T-5624 fuels are not available. This
usually occurs during cross-country flights where air-
craft using NATO F-44 (JP-5) are refueling with
NATO F-40 (JP-4) or Commercial ASTM Type B
fuels. Whenever this condition occurs, the engine