Except in an emergency, propellers should be
moved out of reverse above 40 knots to
minimize propeller blade erosion, and during
crosswind to minimize stress imposed on
propeller, engine and airframe. Care must be
exercised when reversing on runways with
loose sand and/or dust on the surface. Flying
gravel will damage propeller blades and dust
may impair the pilots forward visibility at low
airplane speeds. Performance data charts for
landing computations assume that the runway
is paved, level and dry. Additional runway
must be allowed when these conditions are not
met. Refer to Chapter 7 for landing data. Do
consider headwind during landing
computations; however, if landing must be
downwind, include the tailwind in landing
distance computations. Plan the final approach
to arrive at 50 feet over the landing area at
approach speed (V ref) plus 1/2 wind gust
speed. Perform the following procedures as the
an-craft nears the runway:
Autopilot and yaw damp - Disengaged.
Gear down lights - Check three green.
Propeller levers - HIGH RPM.
Normal. Landing. As the aircraft nears the
runway, flare slightly to break the rate or descent and
reduce power smoothly to idle as the nose. of the aircraft
is rotated to landing attitude. Avoid the tendency to ride
the ground effect cushion while waiting for the aircraft
to slow down to a soft landing. As the aircraft touches
down, gently lower the nosewheel to the runway and
use reversing, brakes, or beta range, as required. If
reversing is used, remove reverse power as the aircraft
slows to 40 KIAS to minimize propeller blade erosion.
b. Crosswind Landing. Refer to Chapter 7 for
recommended Vref speeds. Use the "crab-into-the
wind" method to correct for drift during final approach.
The "crab" is changed to a slip (aileron into wind and
top rudder) to correct for drift during flare and
touchdown. After landing, position ailerons as required
to correct for crosswind effect. For crosswind exceeding
the published limits, a combination "slip and crab"
method at touchdown should be used.
c. Soft Field Landing. When landing on a soft
unprepared surface such as mud, tall grass, or snow,
plan a normal power approach with flaps fully extended.
Decelerate to the slowest possible airspeed just prior to
touchdown, using power to control the final rate of
descent to as slow as possible. Do not stall prior to
touchdown as the nose attitude and rate of descent will
become unacceptable. On touchdown apply full back
(aft) elevator and then reduce power slowly. Do not use
brakes unless absolutely necessary. Every precaution
must be taken to prevent the nose wheel from digging
into the surface.
Touch-and-Go Landings. The instructor should
select a point on the runway where all pretakeoff
procedures will have been completed prior to the pilots
initial application of power. In selecting this point,
prime consideration shall be given to the required
accelerate-stop distance pre-computed for the runway in
use. The nosewheel should be on the runway and rolling
straight before the touch-and-go procedures are
initiated. After the pilot applies power to within 5
percent of target, the copilots (instructors) actions are
the same as during a normal takeoff. If touch-and-go
landings are approved for training purposes use the
Propeller levers - HIGH RPM.
Flaps - As required.
Trim - Set.
Power stabilized - Check approximately 25%
Takeoff power - Set.
When a go-around is commenced prior to the
LANDING check, use power as required to climb to, or
maintain, the desired altitude and airspeed. If the
go-around is started after the LANDING check has been
performed, apply maximum allowable power and
simultaneously increase pitch attitude to stop the
descent. Retract the landing gear after insuring that the
aircraft will not touch the ground. Retract the flaps to
APPROACH, adjusting pitch attitude simultaneously to
avoid an altitude loss. Accelerate to best rate-of-climb
airspeed (Vy) retracting flaps fully after attaining the
V ref speed used for the approach. Perform the
Power - As required.
2. Gear - UP.
3. Flaps - UP.
Landing lights - OFF.
Climb power - Set.