When the aircraft is being towed,
a qualified person must be in the
pilot's seat to maintain control by
use of the brakes. When towing,
do not exceed nose gear turn
limits. Avoid short radius turns,
and always keep the inside or
pivot wheel turning during the
operation. Do not tow aircraft
with rudder locks installed, as
steering linkage can result. When
moving the aircraft backwards, do
not apply the brakes abruptly.
Tow the aircraft slowly, avoiding
sudden stops, especially over
snowy, icy rough, soggy, or
muddy terrain. In arctic climates,
the aircraft must be towed by the
breakaway load, resulting from
ice, frozen tires, and stiffened
grease in the wheel bearings may
damage the nose gear.
Do not tow or taxi aircraft with
deflated shock struts.
(2) Towing. Towing lugs are provided on the
upper torque knee fitting of the nose strut. When it is
necessary to tow the aircraft with a vehicle, use the
vehicle tow bar. In the event towing lines are
necessary, use towing lugs on the main landing gear.
Use towing lines long enough to clear nose and/or tail by
at least 15 feet. This length is required to prevent the
aircraft from overrunning the towing vehicle or fouling
the nose gear.
d. Ground Handling Under Extreme Weather
Conditions. Extreme weather conditions necessitate
particular care in ground handling of the aircraft. In hot,
dry, sandy, desert conditions, special attention must be
devoted to finding a firmly packed parking and towing
area. If such areas are not available, steel mats or an
equivalent solid base must be provided for these
purposes. In wet, swampy areas, care must be taken to
avoid bogging down the aircraft. Under cold, icy, arctic
conditions, additional mooring is required, and added
precautions must be taken to avoid skidding during
towing operations. The particular problems to be
encountered under adverse weather conditions and the
special methods designed to avoid damage to the
aircraft are covered by the various phases of the ground
handling procedures included in this section of general
ground handling instructions. (Refer to TM 55-1500-
2-100. INSTALLATION OF PROTECTIVE COVERS.
The crew will insure that the aircraft protective
covers are installed.
The aircraft is moored to insure its immovability,
conditions. The following paragraphs give, in detail, the
instructions for proper mooring of the aircraft.
a. Mooring Provisions. Mooring points (fig. 2-32)
are provided beneath the wings and tail. Additional
mooring cables may be attached to each landing gear.
General mooring equipment and procedures necessary
to moor the aircraft, in addition to the following, are
given in TM 55-1500-204-25/1.
(1) Use mooring cables of 1/4 inch diameter
aircraft cable and clamp (clip-wire rope), chain or rope
3/8 inch diameter or larger. Length of the cable or rope
will be dependent upon existing circumstances. Allow
sufficient slack in ropes, chains, or cable to compensate
for tightening action due to moisture absorption of rope
or thermal contraction of cable or chain. Do not use slip
knots. Use bowline knots to secure aircraft to mooring
(2) Chock the wheels.
b. Mooring Procedures for High Winds. Structural
damage can occur from high velocity winds; therefore, if
at all possible, the aircraft should be moved to a safe
weather area when winds above 75 knots are expected.
If aircraft must be secured use the following steps:
1. After aircraft is properly located, place nose
wheel in centered position. Head aircraft
into the wind, or as nearly so as is possible
within limits determined by locations of fixed
mooring rings. When necessary, a 45
degree variation of direction is considered to
be satisfactory. Locate each aircraft at
slightly more than wing span distance from
all other aircraft. Position nose mooring
point approximately 3 to 5 feet downwind
from ground mooring anchors.
2. Deflate nose wheel shock strut to within 3/4
inch of its fully deflated position.
3. Fill all fuel tanks to capacity, if time permits.
4. Place wheel chocks fore and aft of main gear
wheels and nose wheel. Tie each pair of
chocks together with rope