Due to possible precession error,
the pitch steering bar may lower
causing the pitch attitude to appear
higher than actual pitch attitude.
vertical velocity and altimeter to
insure proper climb performance.
automatically remove the error after
the acceleration ceases.
8-48. AUTOMATIC APPROACHES.
There are no special preparations required for
placing the aircraft under autopilot control. Refer to
Chapter 3 for procedures to be followed for automatic
The ILS localizer and glideslope
warning flags indicate insufficient
signal strength to the receiver.
Section IV. FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
A prestall warning in the form of very light
buffeting can be felt when a stall is approached. An aural
warning is provided by a warning horn. The warning horn
starts approximately five to ten knots above stall speed
with the aircraft in any configuration.
Power-On Stalls. The power-on stall attitude is
very steep and unless this high-pitch attitude is
maintained, the aircraft will generally "settle" or "mush"
instead of stall. It is difficult to stall the aircraft
inadvertently in any normal maneuver. A light buffet
precedes most stalls, and the first indication of
approaching stall is generally a decrease in control
effectiveness, accompanied by a "chirping" tone from the
stall warning horn. The stall itself is characterized by a
rolling tendency if the aircraft is allowed to yaw. The
proper use of rudder will prevent the tendency to roll. A
slight pitching tendency will develop if the aircraft is held
in the stall, resulting in the nose dropping sharply, then
pitching up toward the horizon; this cycle is repeated until
recovery is made. Control is regained very quickly with
little altitude loss, providing the nose is not lowered
excessively. Begin recovery with forward movement of
the control wheel and a gradual return to level flight. The
roll tendency caused by yaw is more pronounced in
power-on stalls, as is the pitching tendency; however,
both are easily controlled after the initial entry. Power-on
stall characteristics are not greatly affected by wing flap
position, except that stalling speed is reduced in
proportion to the degree of wing flap extension.
considerably less pronounced in power-off stalls (in any
configuration) and is more easily prevented or corrected
by adequate rudder and aileron control, respectively. The
nose will generally drop straight through with some
tendency to pitch up again if recovery is not made
immediately. With wing flaps down, there is little or no
roll tendency and stalling speed is much slower than with
wing flaps up. The Stall Speed Chart (Fig. 8-2) shows
the indicated power-off stall speeds with aircraft in various
configurations. Altitude loss during a full stall will be
approximately 800 feet.
Accelerated Stalls. The aircraft gives noticeable
stall warning in the form of buffeting when the stall
occurs. The stall warning and buffet can be demonstrated
in turns by applying excessive back pressure on the
Intentional spins are prohibited. If a spin is
Spin demonstrations have not been
technique is based on the best
available information. The first
three actions should be as nearly
simultaneously as possible.
Power levers IDLE.
Apply full rudder opposite the direction of spin
Simultaneously with rudder application, push the
control wheel forward and neutralize ailerons.
When rotation stops, neutralize rudder.