Quantcast DESERT   OPERATION   AND   HOT   WEATHER OPERATION.

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TM 1-1510-224-10 Fill   fuel   tanks   to   minimize   condensation,   remove   any accumulation of dirt and ice from the landing gear shock struts,   and   install   protective   covers   to   guard   against possible collection of snow and ice. 8-49.      DESERT   OPERATION   AND   HOT   WEATHER OPERATION. Dust,  sand,  and  high  temperatures  encountered during desert operation can sharply reduce the operational  life  of  the  aircraft  and  its  equipment.    The abrasive  characteristics  of  dust  and  sand  upon  turbine blades  and  other  moving  parts  of  the  aircraft  and  the destructive  effect  of  heat  upon  the  aircraft  instruments will   necessitate   many   hours   of   maintenance   if   basic preventive   measures   are   not   followed.      In   flight,   the hazards of dust and sand will be difficult to escape, since dust clouds over a desert may be found at altitudes up to 10,000 feet.  During hot weather operations, the principal difficulties encountered are high turbine gas temperatures  (TGT)  during  engine  starting,  over-heating of  brakes,  and  longer  takeoff  and  landing  distances  due to  the  higher  density  altitudes  encountered.    In  areas where high humidity is encountered, electrical equipment (such as communication equipment and instruments) will be    subject    to    malfunction    by    corrosion,    fungi,    and moisture absorption by nonmetallic materials. a. Preparation For Flight.  Check the position of the aircraft in relation to other aircraft.  Propeller blown sand can   damage   nearby   aircraft.      Check   that   the   landing gear  shock  struts  are  free  of  dust  and  sand.    Check  the instrument  panel  and  general  interior  for  dust  and  sand accumulation.      Open   main   entrance   door   and   cockpit vent storm windows to ventilate the aircraft. b. Engine   Starting.      Use   normal   procedures   in Section   II.      Engine   starting   under   conditions   of   high ambient    temperatures    may    produce    a    higher    than normal TGT during the start.  Closely monitor TGT when the   CONDITION   lever   is   moved   to   the   LOW   IDLE position. If overtemperature tendencies are encountered,   periodically   move   CONDITION   lever   to IDLE  CUTOFF  position  periodically  during  acceleration of  gas  generator  RPM  (N1).    Be  prepared  to  abort  the start before temperature limitations are exceeded. c. Warm-Up Ground Tests. Use normal procedures in Section II. d. Taxiing.    Use  normal  procedures  in  Section  II. When    practical,    avoid    taxiing    over    sandy    terrain    to minimize propeller damage and engine deterioration that results from impingement of sand and gravel.  During hot weather    operation,    use    minimum    braking    action    to prevent brake overheating. e. Takeoff.    Use  normal  procedures  in  Section  II. Avoid   taking   off   in   the   wake   of   another   aircraft   if   the runway surface is sandy or dusty. f. During Flight.  Use normal procedures in Section II. g. Descent.  Use normal procedures in Section II. h. Landing.  Use normal procedures in Section II. i. Engine  Shutdown.      Use   normal   procedures   in Section II. CAUTION If    fuel    tanks    are    completely    filled during   hot   weather,   fuel   expansion may cause overflow, thereby creating a fire hazard. j. Before Leaving Aircraft.  Use normal procedures in Section II.  Take extreme care to prevent sand or dust from  entering  the  fuel  and  oil  system  during  servicing. During hot weather, release the brakes immediately after installing wheel chocks to prevent brake disc warpage. 8-50. TURBULENCE AND THUNDERSTORM OPERATION. CAUTION Due  to  the  comparatively  light  wing loading, ' control in severe turbulence and thunderstorms is critical.      Since   turbulence   imposes heavy  loads  on  the  aircraft  structure, make all necessary changes in aircraft attitude with the least amount of     control     pressures     possible     to avoid  excessive  loads  on  the  aircraft structure. Thunderstorms  and  areas  of  severe  turbulence should  be  avoided.    However,  if  such  areas  are  to  be penetrated,  it  is  necessary  to  counter  rapid  changes  in attitude  and  accept  major  indicated  altitude  variations. Penetration   should   be   at   an   altitude   which   provides adequate   maneuvering   margins   as   a   loss   or   gain   of several  thousand  feet  of  altitude  may  be  expected.    The recommended speed for penetration of severe turbulence   is   150   KIAS.      Constant   pitch   attitude   and power    settings    are    vital    to    proper    flight    technique. Establish  recommended  penetration  speed  and  proper attitude  prior  to  entering  turbulent  air  to  minimize  most difficulties. False indications by the pressure instruments  due  to  barometric  pressure  variations  within the  storm  make  the  instruments  unreliable.    Maintaining a  pre-established  attitude  will  result  in  a  fairly  constant airspeed.  Turn cockpit and 8-30

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