the ground. The following paragraphs give, in detail, the
instructions and precautions necessary to accomplish
ground handling functions. Parking, covers, ground
handling, and towing equipment are shown in figure 2-
General Ground Handling Procedure. Accidents
resulting in injury to personnel and damage to equipment
can be avoided or minimized by close observance of
handling procedures. Carelessness or insufficient
knowledge of the aircraft or equipment being handled
can be fatal. The applicable technical manuals and
pertinent directives should be studied for familiarization
with the aircraft, its components, and the ground
handling procedures applicable to it, before attempting to
accomplish ground handling.
Ground Handling Safety Practices. Aircraft
equipped with turboprop engines require additional
maintenance safety practices. The following list of
safety practices should be observed at all times to
prevent possible injury to personnel and/or damaged or
Keep intake air ducts free of loose articles
such as rags, tools, etc.
Stay clear of exhaust outlet areas.
During ground runup, ensure the brakes
are firmly set.
Keep area fore and aft of propellers clear
of maintenance equipment.
Do not operate engines with flight control
surfaces in the locked position.
Do not attempt towing or taxiing of the
aircraft with flight control surfaces in the locked position.
When high winds are present, do not
unlock the control surfaces until prepared to properly
Do not operate engines while towing
equipment is attached to the aircraft, or while the aircraft
is tied down.
Check the nose wheel position. Unless it
is in the centered position, avoid operating the engines
at high power settings.
Hold control surfaces in the neutral
position when the engines are being operated at high
When moving the aircraft, do not push on
propeller deicing boots. Damage to the heating
elements may result.
Moving Aircraft on Ground. Aircraft on the
ground shall be moved in accordance with the following:
(1) Taxiing. Taxiing shall be in accordance with chapter
When the aircraft is being towed, a
qualified person must be in the pilot's
seat to maintain control by use of the
brakes. When towing, do not exceed
nose gear turn limits (fig. 2-47).
Avoid short radius turns, and always
keep the inside or pivot wheel turning
during the operation. Do not tow
aircraft with rudder locks installed, as
severe damage to the nose steering
linkage can result. When moving the
aircraft backwards, do not apply the
brakes abruptly. Tow the aircraft
especially over snowy, icy, rough,
soggy, or muddy terrain. In arctic
climates, the aircraft must be towed
by the main gears, as an immense
breakaway load, resulting from ice,
frozen tires, and stiffened grease in
the wheel bearings may damage the
Do not tow or taxi aircraft with
deflated shock struts.
Towing. Towing lugs are provided on the
upper torque knee fitting of the nose strut. When it is
necessary to tow the aircraft with a vehicle, use the
vehicle tow bar. Never exceed the turn limit arrows
displayed on the placard located on the nose gear
assembly (fig. 2-47). In the event towing lines are
necessary, use towing lugs on the main landing gear.
Use towing lines long enough to clear nose and/or tail by
at least 15 feet. This length is required to prevent the
aircraft from overrunning the towing vehicle or fouling the
Conditions. Extreme weather conditions necessitate
particular care in ground handling of the aircraft. In hot,
dry, sandy, desert conditions, special attention must be
devoted to finding a firmly packed parking and towing
area. If such areas are not available, steel mats or an
equivalent solid base must be provided for these
purposes. In wet, swampy areas, care must be taken to
avoid bogging down the aircraft. Under cold, icy, arctic
conditions, additional mooring is required, and added
precautions must be taken to avoid skidding during
Parking is defined as the normal condition under
which the aircraft will be secured while on the ground.
This condition may vary from the temporary expedient of