Change 3 5-1
OPERATING LIMITS AND RESTRICTIONS
This chapter identifies or refers to all important oper-
ating limits and restrictions that shall be observed during
ground and flight operations.
The operating limitations set forth in this chapter are
the direct result of design analysis, tests, and operating
experiences. Compliance with these limits will allow the
pilot to safely perform the assigned missions and to de-
rive maximum utility from the aircraft. Limits concerning
maneuvers, weight, and center of gravity are also cov-
ered in this chapter.
EXCEEDING OPERATIONAL LIMITS.
Anytime an operational limit is exceeded, an appropri-
ate entry shall be made on DA Form 2408-13. Entry shall
state what limit or limits were exceeded, range, time be-
yond limits, and any additional data that would aid main-
tenance personnel in the maintenance action that may
MINIMUM CREW REQUIREMENTS.
The minimum crew required for aircraft operation is
two pilots. Additional crewmembers as required, will be
added at the discretion of the commander, in accordance
with pertinent Department of the Army regulations.
Instruments which display operating limitations are il-
lustrated in figure 5-1. The operating limitations are color
coded on the instrument faces. Color coding of each in-
strument is explained in the illustration.
INSTRUMENT MARKING COLOR CODES.
Operating limitations and ranges are illustrated by the
colored markings which appear on the dial faces of en-
gine, flight, and utility system instruments. Red markings
indicate the limit above or below which continued opera-
tion is likely to cause damage or shorten life. The green
markings indicate the safe or normal range of operation.
The yellow markings indicate the range of operation. The
yellow markings indicate the range when special atten-
tion should be given to the operation covered by the in-
strument. Operation is permissible in the yellow range,
but should be avoided. White markings on the airspeed
indicator denote the flap operating range. The blue mark-
ing on the airspeed indicator denotes best rate of climb
with one engine inoperative, at maximum gross weight,
maximum forward c.g., sea level standard day condi-
The maximum propeller overspeed limit is 1870 RPM
(transient, 20 seconds maximum). Propeller speeds
above 1700 RPM indicate failure of the constant speed
governor. Propeller speeds above 1802 RPM indicates
failure of both the constant speed and overspeed gover-
The starters are limited to an operating period of 40
seconds ON, then 15 minutes OFF, 40 seconds ON, then
30 minutes OFF. Contact maintenance personnel for as-
sistance if no engine start occurs during cycle noted in
a. An autopilot preflight check must be conducted
and found satisfactory prior to each flight on which the
autopilot is to be used.
b. A pilot must be seated at one set of flight controls
with the seat belt fastened when the autopilot is in opera-
c. Operation of the autopilot and yaw damper is pro-
hibited during takeoff and landing, and below 200 feet
above terrain. Maximum speed for autopilot operation is
248 KIAS to 11,500 feet, then 0.472 Mach to 35,000 feet.
5-10. FUEL SYSTEM LIMITS.
Aviation gasoline (AVGAS) contains a form of
lead which has an accumulative adverse effect
on gas turbine engines. The lowest octane AV-
GAS available (less lead content) should be
used. If any AVGAS is used, the operating time
must be entered on DA Form 2408-13-1. Oper-
ating time on AVGAS is computed on the basis
of quantity used and average consumption.