When the aircraft is being towed, a qualified
person must be in the pilot's seat to maintain
control by use of the brakes. When towing, do
not exceed nose gear turn limits (fig. 2-42).
Avoid short radius turns, and always keep the
inside or pivot wheel turning during the
operation. Do not tow aircraft with rudder
locks installed, as severe damage to the nose
steering linkage can result When moving the
aircraft backwards, do not apply the brakes
abruptly. Tow the aircraft slowly, avoiding
sudden stops, especially over snowy, icy,
rough, soggy, or muddy terrain. In arctic
climates, the aircraft must be towed by the
main gears, as an immense breakaway load,
resulting from ice, frozen tires, and stiffened
grease in the wheel bearings may damage the
Do not tow or taxi aircraft with deflated shock
Towing. Towing lugs are provided on the
upper torque knee fitting of the nose strut. When it is
necessary to tow the aircraft with a vehicle, use the
vehicle tow bar. Never exceed the turn limit arrows
displayed on the placard located on the nose gear
assembly (fig. 2-42). In the event towing lines are
necessary, use towing lugs on the main landing gear.
Use towing lines long enough to clear nose and/or tail by
at least 15 feet. This length is required to prevent the
aircraft from overrunning the towing vehicle or fouling
the nose gear.
Conditions. Extreme weather conditions necessitate
particular care in ground handling of the aircraft. In hot,
dry, sandy, desert conditions, special attention must be
devoted to finding a firmly packed parking and towing
area. If such areas are not available, steel mats or an
equivalent solid base must be provided for these
purposes. In wet, swampy areas, care must be taken to
avoid bogging down the aircraft. Under cold, icy, arctic
conditions, additional mooring is required, and added
precautions must be taken to avoid skidding during
Parking is defined as the normal condition under
which the aircraft will be secured while on the ground.
This condition may vary from the temporary expedient
of setting the parking brake and chocking the wheels to
the more elaborate mooring procedures described under
Mooring. The proper steps for securing the aircraft must
be based on the time the aircraft will be left unattended,
the aircraft weight, the expected wind direction and
velocity, and the anticipated availability of ground and
air crews for mooring and/or evacuation. When
practical, head the aircraft into the wind, especially if
strong winds are forecast or if it will be necessary to
leave the aircraft overnight. Set the parking brake and
chock the wheels securely. Following engine shutdown,
position and engage the control locks.
Cowlings and loose equipment will be suitably
secured at all times when left in an unattended
The parking brake system for the aircraft
incorporates two lever-type valves, one for each wheel
brake. Both valves are closed simultaneously by pulling
out the parking brake handle. Operate the parking
brake as follows:
Depress both brakes.
Pull parking brake handle out. This will cause
the parking brake valves to lock the hydraulic
fluid under pressure in the parking brake
system, thereby retaining braking action.
Release brake pedals.
Do not set parking brakes when the brakes are
hot, during freezing ambient temperatures.
Allow brakes to cool before setting parking
To release the parking brakes push in on the
parking brake handle.
The control lock (fig. 2-23) holds the engine and
propeller control levers in a secure position. The
elevator, rudder, and ailerons are secured in a neutral
position. Install the control locks as follows:
With engine and propeller control levers in
secure position, slide lock around the aligned
Install elevator and aileron lockpin through the
pilot's control column to lock control wheel
Install rudder lock pin through floor mounted
door, forward of pilot's seat, making sure
rudder is in neutral position
Reverse steps 1 through 3 above to remove
control lock. Store control lock.
2-105. INSTALLATION OF PROTECTIVE COVERS.
The crew will ensure that the aircraft protective covers
are installed when leaving the aircraft.