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APPENDIX B ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS - TM-1-1510-218-10_897

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TM 1-1510-218-10 B-1 APPENDIX B ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMS For   the   purpose   of   this   manual,   the   following abbreviations    and    terms    apply.        See    appropriate technical manuals for additional terms and limits: B-1.  AIRSPEED TERMINOLOGY CAS Calibrated     airspeed     is     indicated airspeed  corrected  for  position  and instrument error. GS Ground  speed  is  the  speed  of  the aircraft relative to the ground IAS Indicated  airspeed  is  the  speed  as shown on the airspeed indicator and assumes no instrument error KTS Knots M Mach   number.      The   ratio   of   true airspeed to the speed of sound. Mmo Maximum  operating  Mach  number. Mmo varies with altitude. TAS True airspeed is calibrated airspeed corrected  for  altitude,  temperature, pressure, and compressibility effects V1 Takeoff decision speed. The maximum   speed   below   which   the pilot   must   initiate   the   first   action (brake    application)    to    discontinue the  takeoff.    Above  V1,  the  takeoff must be continued. V2 Takeoff   Safety   Speed.      Must   be attained at 35 feet above the runway and  is  the  speed  to  be  maintained during climb to clear an obstacle Va Maneuvering speed is the maximum speed   at   which   application   of   full available   aerodynamic   control   will not overstress the aircraft. Venr One     engine     inoperative     enroute climb    speed    with    the    remaining engine at maximum continuous power    setting    for    the    condition, landing gear and flaps retracted. Vf Design   flap   speed   is   the   highest speed   permissible   at   which   wing flaps may be actuated. Vfe Maximum   flap   extended   speed   is the  highest  speed  permissible  with wing flaps in a  prescribed extended position. Vle Maximum    landing    gear    extended speed   is   the   maximum   speed   at which an aircraft can be safely flown with the landing gear extended. Vlo Maximum    landing    gear    operating speed   is   the   maximum   speed   at which the landing gear can be safely extended or retracted. Vmca The  minimum  flight  speed  at  which the aircraft is directionally controllable as determined in accordance    with    Federal    Aviation Regulations.      Aircraft   Certification conditions include one engine becoming  inoperative  and  propeller windmilling;  up  to  a  5  bank  toward the  operative  engine;  takeoff  power on   operative   engine;   landing   gear up; flaps up; and most rearward CG. This  speed  has  been  demonstrated to provide satisfactory control above power  off  stall  speed  (which  varied with weight, configuration, and flight attitude). Vmcg Ground minimum control speed. V mo Maximum     operating     limit     speed. Not   deliberately   exceeded   in   any phase of flight (climb, cruise, descent)  unless  a  higher  speed  is specifically  authorized  for  flight  test or pilot training. Vne Never exceed speed. Vr Rotation    speed.        The    speed    at which   aircraft   rotation   is   initiated. Varies    with    weight,    altitude,    and temperature. Vref The    indicated    airspeed    that    the aircraft  should  be  at  when  50  feet above   the   runway   in   the   landing configuration. Vs Power    off    stalling    speed    or    the minimum    steady    flight    speed    at which the aircraft is controllable.

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