8A-54. LEVEL FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS.
All flight characteristics are conventional
throughout the level flight speed range.
Section V. ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
This section is to inform the pilot of the special
precautions and procedures to be followed during the
various weather conditions that may be encountered in
flight. This section is primarily narrative and only those
checklists that cover specific procedures characteristic
of weather operations are included. The Checklist in
The procedures defined here are supplementary
procedures and are to be performed in addition to the
normal procedures in Section II.
8A-56. COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS.
Operational difficulties may be encountered
during extremely cold weather, unless proper steps
are taken prior to or immediately after flight. All
personnel should understand, and be fully aware of,
the necessary procedures and precautions involved.
For ground operations conducive to ice
accumulation on landing gear structure,
use undiluted defrosting fluid on brakes
and tires to reduce the tendency of ice
accumulation during taxi, takeoff, and
a. Preparation for Flight. Accumulations of
snow, ice, or frost on aircraft surfaces will adversely
affect takeoff distance, climb performance, and stall
speed to a dangerous degree. Such accumulations
must be removed before flight. In addition to the
normal exterior checks, following the removal of ice,
snow, or frost, inspect wing and empennage surfaces
to verify that these surfaces remain sufficiently
cleared. Also, move all control surfaces to confirm full
freedom of movement. Assure that tires are not frozen
to wheel chocks or to the ground. Use ground
heaters, anti-ice solution, or brake deice to free frozen
tires. When heat is applied to release tires, the
temperature should not exceed 71 °C (160 °F). Refer
to Chapter 2 for anti-icing, deicing, and defrosting
b. Engine Starting. When starting engines on
ramps covered with ice, propeller levers should be in
the FEATHER position to prevent the tires from
sliding. To prevent exceeding torque limits when
advancing condition levers to HIGH IDLE during the
starting procedure, place the power lever in BETA and
the propeller lever in HIGH RPM before advancing the
condition lever to HIGH IDLE.
c. Before Taxi and Engine Runup. Before
taxi and engine runup are the same as those in
Section II. When the engine runup areas are slippery,
the crew may not be able to safely accomplish the
runup procedures without causing the aircraft to begin
sliding. Under those conditions, the pilot on the
controls must use his judgment to determine which
runup procedures will be accomplished.
d. Taxiing. Whenever possible, taxiing in deep
snow, lightweight dry snow, or slush, should be
avoided, particularly in colder OAT conditions. If it is
necessary to taxi through snow or slush, do not set the
parking brake when stopped. If possible, do not park
the aircraft in snow or slush deep enough to reach the
brake assemblies. Chocks or sandbags should be
used to prevent the aircraft from rolling while parked.
Before attempting to taxi, activate the brake deice
system, ensuring that the bleed air valves are open
and that the condition levers are in HIGH IDLE. An
outside observer should visually check wheel rotation
to ensure brake assemblies have been deiced. The
condition levers may be returned to LOW IDLE as
soon as the brakes are free of ice.
e. Before Takeoff.
If the possibility of ice accumulation on the
horizontal stabilizer or elevator exists, do
not attempt takeoff.
If icing conditions are expected, activate all anti-
ice systems before takeoff, allowing sufficient time for
the equipment to become effective.