control with nose wheel steering and rudder. Do not
use brakes unless absolutely necessary. Hold the
elevators in a neutral position, maintaining wings level
with ailerons. Allow the aircraft to roll with its full
weight on the wheels until V1/Vr is reached. At this
speed rotate smoothly and firmly at a rate that will
allow liftoff at liftoff air speed (Vlof). After noting a
positive climb, direct the PNF to retract the landing
procedures as outlined for a minimum run takeoff, to
the point of actual liftoff. When flight is assured,
retract the landing gear and establish a wings level
climb attitude, maintaining the computed obstacle
clearance airspeed (Vx). Climb at this speed until clear
of the obstacle. After the obstacle is cleared, lower the
nose slowly and accelerate to Vy. Retract flaps after
attaining 105 KIAS.
The best angle-of-climb speed (Vx) is very
close to single-engine, power-off stall
speed. To provide for a margin of safety in
the event of engine failure immediately
after takeoff, the obstacle clearance
airspeed value is used in lieu of true Vx for
maximum angle takeoff climbs. Takeoff
performance data shown in Chapter 7 is
based on the use of obstacle clearance
e. Soft Field Takeoff. If a takeoff must be
made in conditions of mud, snow, tall grass, rough
surface or other conditions of high surface friction, the
following procedure should be used. Set flaps at
TAKEOFF (40%), align the aircraft with the runway,
and with the yoke held firmly aft, begin a slow steady
acceleration, avoiding rapid or transient accelerations.
Continue to hold full aft yoke to transfer the weight of
the aircraft from the wheels to the wings as soon as
possible. When the aircraft rotates, control pitch
attitude (nose) to lift off from the soft surface at the
slowest possible speed. When airborne, level off
immediately in ground effect just above the surface,
and accelerate to Vlof before rotating to climb attitude
and retracting the landing gear. Consider the effects
of snow or mud on gear retraction as applicable.
8-34. AFTER TAKEOFF.
During takeoff and climb, the pilot flying
the aircraft should avoid adjusting controls
located on the aft portion of the extended
pedestal to preclude inducing spatial
After the aircraft is positively airborne and flight
is assured, retract the landing gear. Adjust pitch
attitude as required (no greater than 15°) to maintain
V2 + 10 KIAS. If required, limit climb attitude to 15°
and accept a higher airspeed during the initial climb.
Retract flaps after attaining 105 KIAS. The PNF
should continue to maintain power at the computed
setting and to monitor instruments. At safe single-
engine maneuvering attitude, adjust pitch attitude to
obtain cruise climb airspeed (or slow cruise if
required). As cruise climb airspeed is attained, adjust
power to the climb power setting (maximum
continuous, maximum climb, or as required.) The PNF
then activates the yaw damp on the PFs request and
checks that the cabin is pressurizing. Both pilots
check the wings and nacelles for fuel or oil leaks. The
procedural steps after takeoff are as follows.
1. GEAR UP.
2. FLAPS (105 KIAS) UP.
3. LANDING LIGHTS OFF.
4. Climb power Set.
5. PROP SYNC switch As required.
a. Cruise Climb. Cruise climb is performed
at a speed that is the best combination of climb, fuel
burn-off, and distance covered. Set propellers at
1900 RPM and torque at 100% (or maximum climb
TGT). Adhere to the following airspeed schedule as
closely as possible.
SL to 10,000 feet....
10,000 to 20,000 feet
20,000 to 25,000 feet
25,000 to 31,000 feet.
Maneuvering should be held to a minimum and
climbing turns should not exceed 20-25° bank angle.
Banks of more than 25° materially effect climb
performance, reducing rate of climb through loss of
vertical lift, while banks of 30° or more may cause
passenger discomfort due to imposing high load
b. Climb Maximum Rate. Maximum rate of
climb performance is obtained by setting propellers at
2000 RPM, torque at 100% (or maximum climb TGT),
and maintaining best rate-of-climb airspeed. This
airspeed will vary with gross weight and must also be
reduced as available power is reduced with altitude.
As a rule of thumb, reduce airspeed approximately one
knot for each 2,000 feet of altitude above that altitude